Stan whines about Zig¶
While reading through recent release notes for LLVM suite, I spotted a mention of something called “the Zig programming language”. Expecting something really stupid, I decided to take a ten minute gander. Little did I know that this will end up relevant to my previous rant about Rust.
What followed was an emotional rollercoaster. First, there was the note of trying to become better than C (not C++, but closer to it than something like Kotlin or Dart that wouldn’t even keep me reading). Then there were a few more irritating things, which complimented the initial tease without extinguishing it completely. This did not prepare me for what happened around the middle of the ziglang.org frontpage: a storm of features that I either found cool or even independently came up with before had me enter an uneven emotional state; I was wondering if that’s what falling in love feels like… But not for long. Falling in love shouldn’t expire in minutes.
I compared Rust to a Giant Friendly Clumsy Crab. I’m not sure what to come up with that will describe CATS… I mean Zig… huh.
How are you gentlemen!!¶
Zig has, no doubt by convergence of good design, some features that are absolutely reminiscent of what I was planning to do with my language already. A powerful example is that it leverages Clang to take a C header file and convert it to a native module, with little to no fiddling required to fix it. A lot of languages have C binding facilities, but it either comes with being mostly a superset of C and inheriting its header inclusion model, or requires manual work to present every entity that needs presentation to the language.
Another cool element that I was actually going to attempt implementing myself is avoiding the Bracket Madness. As far as Zig is concerned, a class template is a function that returns a type, so it uses regular parentheses. This is what Zig calls a “comptime” function, which, to the best of my knowledge, is extremely close to C++2a’s “consteval”, but incorporates typing as well. This is brilliantly elegant.
Apparently there’s also some integrated build system - eh - which seems to implement some sort of compilation asset reuse that is more advanced than what C compilers do - huh? I’m not exactly sure of the details, but the basic idea sounds very much like what my Futomake was supposed to be about.
All your base are belong to us.¶
Since headers are nonsensical anyway, let’s get to my complaints. Some of them are of the… axiomatic nature. For instance, Zig has decided that anything that doesn’t look like function call cannot generate a function call, which automatically eliminates a lot of cool features such as operator overloading and automatic destructors. Now, to be absolutely fair, the author (I think one by that point) made an exception of sort and allowed a flat RAII notation managed with separate keywords, so you can get your destructors, you just gotta ask for them every single time. I think that notation will be friendlier to C veterans who hate destructors and… erm… GC veterans who hate destructors. But, I’m discussing my viewpoint here. Destructors are cool. Operator overloads are cool. I can’t exactly vouch for this aspect of the language.
I am a bit more receptive to the error handling setup. It’s basically taking pieces from both error codes and exceptions, though I can’t help but wonder about the implementation, once again.
You are on the way to destruction.¶
There’s a lot to take in Zig, and it isn’t a language that is particularly well separated from the implementation, by the way. It advertises such features as shipping with musl source on Linux. Which is, you know, very cool, but other language compilers could easily start doing this. Clang, start doing this, please?
That’s pretty clearly on the environment side. Extensive error checks are more arguable. But these are cool. What’s not cool is a lot of excessive notation. Function template equivalents are functions with “comptime” type parameters, which you have to put in yourself like it would be a macro. Everything in standard library that allocates takes an allocator parameter, that you have to put in yourself. Value parameters… actually, I’m not too sure, I’ll explain later. Combined with no operator overloading and automatic destructors, this doesn’t sound too good.
YOU HAVE NO CHANCE TO SURVIVE¶
The above verbosity is enough to make me fall out of my falling in love with Zig, but I could see working with it if it added other stuff I personally want in my language. This seems very unlikely to happen:
D implementation of properties and C++ operator overloading are explicitly listed as going against Zig interpretation of control flow integrity.
Given the implentation of error enumerations, it seems very unlikely that Zig authors would like to implement my ideas of open structures and classes.
Zig comes with a “3-bit signed integer type” ready to go. This may seem like a very weird complaint to have, but the kicker is that it’s explicitly not byte aligned, while bytes are, and there doesn’t seem to be a way to make them not.
Zig is actively moving away from sigils to keywords, and less actively away from stropped keywords to regular keywords.
make your time.¶
The last point is what I would consider “very interesting”. You see, Zig is not considering itself production ready yet, it’s in version 0.5.0 right now and that comes with an explanation that 1.0.0 is what authors (many at that point, I suppose) will consider stable. This is rather obvious when reading description of language features. Compared to Rust situation, changes between today’s and 2016’s Zig are kind of huge. So maybe it’s not really the time to judge it as a whole.
The biggest problem that Zig presents to me is that I cannot really see getting many people to cooperate with my language if there’s already a solid competition in what I consider a relatively small market. Oh well, we’ll see if that’s the case. Maybe I’ll just give up as always and there will be no problem whatsoever.